Pandemic Timeline

SARS-CoV-2 Timeline

SARS-CoV-2 Timeline

April 26 2020

HCQ, showing no difference in mortality

Retrospective 217 critically ill patients, 114 receiving HCQ, showing no significant difference in mortality. risk of death, 2.8% higher, RR 1.03, p = 1.00, treatment 33 of 114 (28.9%), control 29 of 103 (28.2%). Auld et al., 4/26/2020, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 14 authors. https://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal/Fulltext/2020/09000/ICU_and_Ventilator_Mortality_Among_Critically_Ill.35.aspx

April 28 2020

Spain plan for easing lockdowns

The Spanish government announced a plan for easing lockdown restrictions.

May 1 2020

Remdesivir Wins EUA

May 1 — Remdesivir Wins EUA
Shortly after the trial data are published, FDA grants an EUA to remdesivir after preliminary data from an NIH trial found the treatment accelerated recovery in individuals with advanced COVID-19 and lung involvement.

May 5 2020

Early Treatment: Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin

May 5 –
Early Treatment of COVID-19 Patients With Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Analysis of 1061 Cases in Marseille, France
Retrospective 1061 patients. HCQ+AZ safe and results in a low fatality rate.
Million et al., 5/5/2020, peer-reviewed, 37 authors.

May 12 2020

Death Toll Underestimated

Death Toll Likely Underestimated, Fauci Testifies
Anthony Fauci, MD, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, testifies before the US Senate that the US death toll of 80,000 is likely an underestimate. He warns against the relaxation of social distancing and says he is “cautiously optimistic” that a vaccine will be effective and achieved within 1 or 2 years.

May 19 2020

“no evidence”

Trump says he is taking unproven drug hydroxychloroquine
BBC Article says: “There is no evidence hydroxychloroquine can fight coronavirus, and regulators warn the drug may cause heart problems.”
“Dr Marcos Espinal, director of the Pan American Health Organization – part of the World Health Organization (WHO) – has also since stressed that no clinical trials have recommended the use of hydroxychloroquine for coronavirus.”

May 21 2020

AstraZeneca Vaccine Deal

United States and AstraZeneca Form Vaccine Deal
The Trump administration and AstraZeneca announce a collaboration to speed development of a COVID-19 vaccine called AZD1222. HHS says it expects the first doses to be available as early as October 2020; phase 3 clinical studies are underway this summer.

May 28 2020

HCQ associated with 66.8% lower case rate

4+ doses of HCQ associated with a significant decline in the odds of getting infected, dose-response relationship exists.
risk of COVID-19 case, 66.8% lower, RR 0.33, p < 0.001, treatment 12 of 68 (17.6%), control 206 of 387 (53.2%), full course vs. unused.
Chatterjee et al., 5/28/2020, retrospective, India, South Asia, peer-reviewed, survey, 11 authors.
https://www.ijmr.org.in/article.asp?issn=0971-5916;year=2020;volume=151;issue=5;spage=459;epage=467;aulast=Chatterjee

June 4 2020

Retracting Studies on Hydroxychloroquine

Lancet, NEJM Retract COVID-19 Studies on Hydroxychloroquine

On the same day, The New England Journal of Medicine and The Lancet both retract 2 studies on the use of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19, after the authors said they could not vouch for the data used. A private database of medical records compiled by a little-known firm called Surgisphere was used in both studies. The retractions bring to light the difficulty of publishing vital COVID-19 research while ensuring accuracy.

June 15 2020

FDA revokes EUA to use hydroxychloroquine

June 15, 2020 Update: Based on ongoing analysis and emerging scientific data, FDA has revoked the emergency use authorization (EUA) to use hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to treat COVID-19 in certain hospitalized patients when a clinical trial is unavailable or participation is not feasible.

June 17 2020

Israel signs agreement with Moderna

Israel signs agreement with Moderna for potential COVID-19 vaccine
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-moderna-israel/israel-signs-agreement-with-moderna-for-potential-covid-19-vaccine-idUSKBN23O2RA

June 26 2020

Hospitalization rate of 0.000984%

CDC Surveillance study show hospitalization rate of 0.000984%

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/covidview/past-reports/06262020.html

July 1 2020

FDA review of safety issues (HCQ & CQ)

July 1, 2020 Update: A summary of the FDA review of safety issues with the use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to treat hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is now available. This includes reports of serious heart rhythm problems and other safety issues, including blood and lymph system disorders, kidney injuries, and liver problems and failure.

July 8 2020

Ivermectin lowers risk of death by 71%

Ivermectinrisk of death, 71.0% lower, RR 0.29, p = 1.00, treatment 0 of 16 (0.0%), control 2 of 71 (2.8%), continuity correction due to zero event.
hospitalization time, 42.0% lower, relative time 0.58, p < 0.001, treatment 16, control 71.
risk of no recovery, 71.0% lower, RR 0.29, p = 1.00, treatment 0 of 16 (0.0%), control 2 of 71 (2.8%), continuity correction due to zero event.
Gorial et al., 7/8/2020, retrospective, Iraq, Middle East, preprint, 9 authors, dosage 200μg/kg single dose.
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.07.20145979v1

July 14 2020

Early Moderna Data

Early Moderna Data Point to Vaccine Candidate’s Efficacy

Data from phase 1/2 trials of Moderna Inc’s COVID-19 vaccine show that doses produced immune responses in all 3 groups of 15 volunteers. The company was the first to enter large-scale human trials. Adverse effects of the vaccine candidate, which is administered twice 28 days apart, include injection site pain and chills.

July 14 2020

risk of hospitalization, 80.6% lower with Ivermectin

Ivermectin: risk of hospitalization, 80.6% lower, RR 0.19, p = 0.23, treatment 0 of 60 (0.0%), control 2 of 56 (3.6%), continuity correction due to zero event.
risk of no recovery, 46.4% lower, RR 0.54, p < 0.001, treatment 27 of 60 (45.0%), control 47 of 56 (83.9%), mid-recovery day 5.
recovery time, 15.2% lower, relative time 0.85, p = 0.07, treatment 60, control 56.
risk of no virological cure, 80.6% lower, RR 0.19, p = 0.23, treatment 0 of 60 (0.0%), control 2 of 56 (3.6%), continuity correction due to zero event.
time to viral-, 4.3% lower, relative time 0.96, p = 0.23, treatment 60, control 56.
Chowdhury et al., 7/14/2020, Randomized Controlled Trial, Bangladesh, South Asia, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, dosage 200μg/kg single dose, this trial compares with another treatment – results may be better when compared to placebo, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with doxycycline) – results of individual treatments may vary.
https://ejmo.org/10.14744/ejmo.2021.16263/

July 17 2020

Barcelona residents to stay at home

17 July, in response to an increase in the number of cases in the Barcelona metropolitan area, the government of Catalonia forbade gatherings of more than 10 people in public or private spaces, and advised residents to stay at home unless strictly necessary.

July 21 2020

AstraZeneca Shows Promising Results

Vaccines From AstraZeneca, CanSino Biologics Show Promising Results

Two experimental vaccines, one from AstraZeneca and the other from CanSino Biologics, show promising results against COVID-19. The interim results of AstraZeneca’s phase 1/2 COV001 trial of AZD1222 show that the vaccine was tolerated and generated robust immune responses against the virus in all participants who were evaluated. In the CanSino Phase 2 trial, the vaccine induced significant neutralizing antibody responses, with as many as 95% of patients showing either cellular or humoral immune responses at day 28 post vaccination.

July 22 2020

Agreement With Pfizer and BioNTech

HHS, DOD Announce Vaccine Distribution Agreement With Pfizer and BioNTech

HHS and the Department of Defense (DOD) strike a partnership with biotech giants Pfizer and BioNTech for a December delivery of 100 million doses of their COVID-19 vaccine candidate, BNT162, in a deal that could expand to 600 million doses if the vaccine receives approval or an EUA from the FDA, and even then only if phase 3 clinical trial results confirm that the vaccine is safe and effective.

July 23 2020

Antibody levels drop 3 months after Infection?

Antibody Levels Drop After First 3 Months of COVID-19 Infection

Findings from a research letter published in the New England Journal of Medicine indicate that levels of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, dropped dramatically across the first 3 months of infection. At this rate, researchers note that antibody resistance would be depleted within a year, although experts note that the possibility of being infected again with the virus is very unlikely.